The main direction of the activity of KANEX GROUP is production and supply of spare parts for steam boilers of thermal power plants and other boiler accessories and pipelines. The main production areas of the company are Shchekino Plant of Boiler Accessories and Pipelines, ZAO Kyshtym Machine-Building Association (СJSC) (ZAO KMO (CJSC)) and Ozerskkhimprom Company.
Steam boilers are intended for operation at Thermal Power Plant and Heat Power Plant. The service life of steam boiler blocks is limited by the design life and defined by the equipment operating conditions. During operation of the equipment of the heat power plants some boilers blocks and units should be replaced from time to time. It is a usual situation even for high-quality equipment because different blocks can have different service life for some objective reasons. Specially for such cases enterprises of our holding company produce spare parts and accessories for boiler repair, and offer different variants of the boiler equipment modernization.
Types of the supplied accessories to steam boilers:
1. Boiler frame.
The boiler frame is a metal structure taking load form a drum, heating surface, setting, areas, stairs and other elements of the boiler, and transferring it to the foundation or building structures. The frame of the modern boiler of high steam capacity has a difficult structure and consists of vertical columns connecting their horizontal girders, beams and diagonal braces. The columns are joined with a supporting (center) beam and overhead covering at the top. Almost all elements of the frame: columns, girders, beams and braces are welded together that provides stability and durability of the frame. Just the beams which can make significant extra tension in columns by heat expansion or bend are simply supported by the frame and bolted through oval holes.
2. Boiler drum.
In a boiler with natural or forced circulation, steam is generated in the drum which is a cylindrical vessel with a diameter of up to 1,8 m and a wall thickness of up to 100 mm and more, and a length of up to 30 m. the drum has a large number of connected lifting pipes and downcomers of a circulation loop, feed water and a superheater. The drum is fixed on the boiler frame using roller supports providing free extension of the drum during heating. Steam separation devices are put inside the drum.
They are intended for water feed to waterwall heating tubes from the boiler drum. In general tubes of steel brand 20 with a diameter of 83-159 mm are used for production of downcomers.
4. Waterwall tubes.
They are elements of a combustion chamber. Waterwall tubes have two purposes at the same time: the play the role of enclosing and heating areas. Boiler walls are usually made of plain tubes connected with the help of welding. Besides the walls take heat from the furnace they protect setting of the furnace walls from the destroying influence of high temperature and the chemical effect of molten slag. The temperature of setting behind the waterwall tubes doesn’t exceed 500 ⁰С in modern boilers that allows making easy the setting and increasing its service life. Waterwall tubes of modern high-pressure boilers with natural circulation have an external diameter of 60 mm, and of average-pressure boilers — 83 mm, the gap between tubes is 4 and 19 mm accordingly. The end of waterwall tubes is welded to connecting pipes of horizontal circular-section collectors made of thick-walled tubes or directly to the collector.
5. Overhead superheater.
It is a part of a boiler structure. It relates to radiation heating areas which take heat from gas mainly due to radiation. It is made of steel tubes with a diameter of 32-60 mm and wall thickness of 4-6 mm.
The radiation part of the superheater located on the walls and ceiling of the combustion chamber takes radiant heat and doesn’t almost differ from water walls regarding their structure — consists of tubes welded to circular-section collectors. In each panel of the superheater radiation part the steam goes through pipes at first top-down and then up through the lower collector to other pipes. Guide supports fixed to the frame beams are installed in some places along the tubes height; this fastening doesn’t prevent vertical shift of tubes by their temperature change. Fastening of horizontal overhead tubes also shouldn’t prevent their thermal expansion. These tubes are hung pull bars to the overhead frame covering.
6. Screen superheater.
This device is intended for steam heating to the oversaturation temperature due to taking radiation heat from the combustion chamber. The structure of a screen superheater block consists of multirow banks (screens) made of bent steel pipes (their diameter is 32-38 mm) connected with an upstream and downstream chamber.
The semi-radiation part of a superheater (screen), located at the furnace top and in a horizontal gas pipe, takes both radiation heat due to radiation and convection heat. Coal-fired boilers have vertical screens which are less subject to slagging and gaseous masout boilers have horizontal ones.
7. Convection superheater.
This device is intended for steam superheat to the required temperature due to taking convection heat from the combustion chamber. The structure of a convection superheater block consists of a system of steel pipes (coil pipes) connected with an upstream and downstream chamber. The convection superheater is one of the most important boiler blocks and operates under hard temperature conditions. Depending on the output parameters of the superheated steam a convection superheater is made of alloy or high-alloy steel.
The convection part of a superheater is in a horizontal gas pipe and a convection mine. Average-pressure boilers where just 20% of all heat is used for steam superheat the whole superheater is located in a horizontal gas pipe.
They relate to the convection boiler part and are intended for steam superheat to the required temperature due to taking convection heat from the combustion chamber. The structure of microassemblies consists of a system of steel coil pipes connected with an upstream and downstream chamber. Usually pipes of steel brand 12Х1МФ, 12Х18Н12Т are used for microassemblies production.
9. LRP, MRP, URP direct flow boilers.
Direct flow boilers have lower (LRP), middle (MRP) and upper (URP) radiation parts in screens. Usually pipes with an external diameter of 32, 38 and 42 mm are used for producing screens of direct flow boilers. Both panels with direct vertical pipes and multi-loop ones are used. Single- and multi-pass tube panels are wide spread in modern direct flow boilers. The lower radiation part (LRP), located in the flame body where one should be concerned about uneven heating of some tubes, is made of single-pass panels. Upper layers of screens (MRP, URP) have multi-pass panels.
10. Feed-water economizer.
This is a boiler element intended for pre-heating boiler water at the expense of the heat of exit combustion gases. A feed-water economizer is a block structure consisting of a number of coil pipes banks, an upstream and downstream chamber. Modern boilers have boiling feed-water economizers where water is not just heated to the boiling point but also partially transforms to saturated steam. Economizers are made as tube banks installed in a boiler convection mine in the direction of combustion gases behind the convection superheater. The banks consist of coil pipes made of tube with an external diameter from 25 to 42 mm welded to the connecting pipes or directly to the collector.
11. Air heater.
This device is intended for pre-heating of the air delivered to the boiler furnace to increase the fuel burning efficiency and therefore the boiler efficiency factor increase. There is hot air-drying in boilers operating on powdered fuel. Air heaters are divided into two types: recuperative (tubular) and regenerative (rotating).
11.1. Tubular air heater.
A tubular air heater consists of separate elements (cubes) where vertical direct steel tubes of 51×1,5 or 40×1,5 mm placed in a staggered order are welded with their end to the horizontal tube plates. There are fume gases inside tubes and air between tubes in the horizontal direction. Usually several columns of an air heater are put along the width of a boiler and several cubes vertically. Air goes from one cube into another one through bypass boxes. An external lens compensator welded to the upper cube at the bottom and to the wall frame at the top is installed for compensating thermal extension of an air heater. Air heaters with a height of over 3 m have extra side compensators between upper tube plates and external walls of the convection mine.
11.2. Regenerative air heater.
Modern boilers have two or more devices of a regenerative air heater with a diameter of 6,8 or 9,8 m which are turned on at the same time. Each device of a regenerative air heater consists of a body, a cylindrical rotor slowly rotating around the vertical axis of air and gas nipples supplying and discharging air and combustion gases.
Vertical steel plates in the rotor are alternately heated by a flow of combustion gases going between them during the rotor rotation and then they are cooled by an air flow and give the heat taken by them to the air. The rotor consists of a large number of wedge-shaped sections containing vertical plates fixed by a frame. The shape of plates provides gaps between them for supplying combustion gases and air by turns. An electric motor makes the rotor rotate with the help of a reducer and a pin wheel which represents vertical rollers (pins) located round the rotor circle. Such pin toothing which is not firm can safely operate if there was any inaccuracy during the rotor production. To avoid air flow to combustion gases this device has a ring peripheral seal, a ring internal seal round a vertical shaft and radial seals between gas and air boxes. All these seals are put both in the top and bottom parts of the rotor.
12. Condensing unit.
Condensing boilers operate according to the principle which was known more than a hundred years ago. The efficient use of this method has started recently. There is a possibility of using alloys which are not subject to corrosion and also different brands of stainless steel during the heating boilers production.
The fan in front of the burner sucks gas out of the gas pipeline, mixes it with air and directs the working fuel mixture to the burner. Combustion gases are removed through «tube in tube» coaxial flues which are made of heat-resistant plastic. The automatically guided pump optimizes the heating system capacity, saves electricity and reduces noise of the heat carrier circulating in the heating system.
13. Steam-supply pipes.
They are tube elements operating under pressure. They are made of tubes with a diameter of 108-133 mm. the brand of the used steel and the thickness of the tube wall depend on those parameters which this tube operates under. Usually steel brands 20, 12ХМФ, 12Х1МФ, 15ГС and similar are used for production of steam-supply pipes.
These are boiler elements intended for collecting and distributing the operating environment. They are a steel thick-walled welded cylindrical structure and combine a group of tubes. According to their purpose, collectors are divided into steam and water collectors, superheater and small-diameter ones which as a rule are used for economizers. Collectors are made of tubes of the following steel brands: 20, 15ГС, 15ХМ, 12Х1МФ, 15Х1М1Ф.
They represent heat-exchange systems intended for decreasing the superheated steam temperature in a boiler or in front of a turbine.
Desuperheaters are usually put in an intermediate collector. Depending on the desuperheaters location in a boiler and a kind of heat exchange in it there can be radiation, convection and radiation, screen and convection desuperheaters. All desuperheaters are divided into surface and spray ones depending on the principle of steam cooling.
In surface desuperheaters the steam is cooled by removing heat from the steam with the help of feed water which goes through tubes of the heat-exchange device.
In spray desuperheaters the steam is cooled by removing heat from the steam with the help of feed water which is directly sprayed in the device.
16. Block automated burner devices.
They have a wide range of thermal performance — 10...20000 kW and are intended for operation on natural and condensed gas, light liquid fuel and black oil. Both gas and liquid fuel is burnt in multifuel burners.
A burner device is intended for burning natural and condensed gas, and has the following accessories: a ball cock for gas supply; gas pressure relay; multifunctional gas multi-block which has a filter (mud collector), two magnetic valves and a gas pressure regulator. Gas goes to a flame tube through the connection passage.
17. Burner throats.
They are a structural element of furnace block walls. They play the role of a structure for placing a boiler burner device.
18. Boiler fittings.
There are smoke dampers (gates), which help to regulate the draught, in gas ducts behind each boiler. Manholes and trapdoors are intended for examination, repair or cleaning external and internal heating areas. There are explosive valves intended for protecting the furnace setting and boiler from destruction during explosion at the top of the boiler furnace or gas pipe operating on gas or liquid fuel.
Tel.: +7 (495) 708-43-30 ext. 185
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