A pipeline is a device, which is used for conveyance of liquid, gaseous and bulk materials. Depending on the operating conditions and the purpose of use, the pipelines are classified as follows: according to the pressure, the temperature of the transported material, the nature of the transported material, the location.
Pipeline details are the components installed in the points of branching, bending, and changing for a pipe with a different diameter. They are installed when frequent assembly and disassembly of pipes are required. They provide leak-tight coverage, quality and durability of the pipelines for any industry.
Types of the available pipelines:
1. Pipe branches.
These are pipeline fittings. They are installed to change the direction of a pipeline and are made from steel 20, steels with increased resistance to corrosion and cold, alloy steels. According to the process of manufacture and design, they are divided into seamless knuckle bends, bend branches, welded branches and stamp-welded branches.
Seamless knuckle bends are made from carbon and low alloy steel pipes with a small bending radius using pressing or broaching techniques. Stamp-welded knuckle bends are made from sheet steel by pressing billets with subsequent assembly and welding of the two longitudinal seams. Welded sectional branches are made from seamless and electric-welded pipes by cutting separate sections and their subsequent assembly and welding.
2. Pipe reducers.
These are pipeline fittings designed for connection of two pipes with different diameters.
They are installed to connect two pipes with different diameters and are made from different grades of steel depending on the operating environment. According to the design, they are divided into concentric reducers (for connection of two pipes along the central axis of symmetry of the pipeline) and eccentric reducers (for connection of two pipes along the bottom generating line). Concentric reducers are made with the help of pressing or centrifugal electroslag casting.
3. Pipe tees.
These are pipeline fittings that allow to connect additional pipe branches to the main pipe.
They are installed to connect additional pipe branches to the main pipe. According to the design, they are divided into straight tees (without the decrease in the diameter of the pipe branch) and reducing tees (with the decrease in the diameter of the pipe branch).
Straight tees are made with different wall thickness: standard and reinforced (thick-walled) tees.
According to the process of manufacture, the tees are divided into stamped, welded and stamp-welded tees.
4. Ends and plugs.
These are pipeline components designed for leak-tight closure of the end openings of the pipelines. They are also used during manufacture of containers.
The plugs are mostly made by pressing. According to the shape and attachment method, they are divided into elliptic plugs, blind flanges, spectacle flanges, flat welded, quick-release, spherical end caps, spades and other types of plugs.
These are the most common pipeline parts used to connect stop and control valves to the pipelines, connect pipeline components to each other and connect pipelines to various equipment. Flanges have standard connection dimensions and dimensions of the sealing surfaces for the same nominal pressure and inner diameter of the pipes, regardless of design and material used. This ensures replacement and installation of flanges without additional treatment, while complying with the requirements applicable to operation of the flanges of all types.
According to the design, flanges are divided into plane, weld neck and loose flanges. Plane and weld neck flanges are the most popular. During installation, plane weld flange is "put" on the pipe and welded with two wealds around the circumference of the pipe. Unlike plane flanges, weld neck flanges have conic projection that is welded to the pipe. Tapered neck allows to make flange connection much stronger.
Studs, nuts, bolts, washers and valve are used to fasten flange connections.
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